The steps of the development of thinking of children first year of life
“The source of the desire to learn is in the very nature of child mental labor, in the emotional coloring of thought and intellectual experiences. If that source dries up, any receptions will not force the child to sit with a book.”
Here the child first raised his head to see where removed mom, that made the first movement toward toys, and later said the first word to indicate what he wants. All of this – the first signs of conscious activity, which is determined by his thinking.
By definition, thinking is always the search for and discovery of significantly new (here there is a view that opened up in the new thinking is that in relation only to earlier stages of thinking and generally throughout the life of the individual, and not all humanity). Already a small child, as he basic kinds of mental activity begins to discover. For example, he thinks about the device of a toy, trying to understand some of the relationships between people, possesses more complex skills and abilities.
At a time when the child develops, he begins to consistently turn on different genes that determine the direction of further development of its Central nervous system (Anokhin K. V. 2000), and this sequence the development of the baby can be divided into different periods, the level of development.
The beginning of each new “step” can be defined as the emergence of new information “measure” in the system of child’s knowledge about the world (touch, sight), or qualitative increase in the volume of information received (crawling, speech understanding). Each “step” means the period of work on a new feeling and active use. Already known facts are supplemented with new properties (mom he already knows, but now he even sees). And the cognition of new objects is using all available knowledge.
1. Newborn (first two-three weeks).
Through touch, the child perceives the world. At this stage, he formed the “physical” images. The basis of the image lie the impressions of sensations received through hearing, touch and smell).
2. Two or three weeks.
The child begins to see. At this time he begins to feel the relationship between the presence of a person (she went) and their subsequent emotional state. Aware of what his reaction will lead to mom, and enjoyed it.
3. The child begins to move in the necessary direction (three-six).
Each time, with the development of some new movement, the child actively explores the world around us. This reduces his ego (he is still the center of the world, but on the threshold of understanding that if something is necessary, to achieve the goal he needs to make some movement (crawling)).
4. Five to seven months.
The child gradually begins to identify as a man. In the first place, it is expressed that he is starting to “feel” away from mom. Before that, her arms, legs – are perceived as an extension of his own body. Appears complex “fright”, i.e. the child is afraid of strangers, crying in the absence of familiar faces. In parallel, models of relationships formed with the people who, subsequently, it is difficult to alter. The person who was closest to the child and with whom the child was most comfortable, is most close to him for a long time (thus imparting).
After some time there comes a moment when the child can say “no”. It’s already the next stage identify him as a man.
Until this age do not need to burden the child’s actual knowledge. Even with large efforts, the effect is small. Moreover, it is harmful, because all the efforts of the child at the time focused on the development of his senses, and these “lessons” can help ensure that he, Nedoroslev senses, will jump on the feed material. Better to stimulate it in different ways (showing bright pictures, toys, stroking it different (texture) fabrics include beautiful music, to talk with him). More details about these methods are described in the book by S. Lupan.
5. The stage of the “pregovaranja” (eight-twelve)
Long before a baby’s first pronounce the selected word, his brain will prepare for this by doing the planning billion actions and the elaboration of concepts. Damasio suggested that it can be viewed as a three-component system: the formation of words, the representation of concepts and intermediate processes that play a role of intermediaries between the first two components.
6. At the age of eight to twelve months, before a child begins to speak, his brain fixed relationship:
the subject is the word (name)
action – word
All these connections are emotional. And when they are formed in full, start to form the beginnings of abstract thinking.
However, there are variances: some children with defects of the conceptual systems nevertheless learn literacy. This is due to the fact that the maturation of the speech process is not always parallel to the formation of concepts).
There is an alternation of discoveries in the field of physical activity and in the field of word formation. It is that until the child masters some new movement (p. 3), – the development in the field of word formation (p. 5) time slows down. Then perfect discovery gave a new impulse to the development of the conceptual relationships.