Psycho-pedagogical characteristics of adolescents from socially disadvantaged families
In our work we describe risk group teenagers. Currently the concept of “children at risk” is used quite often in pedagogy and psychology. Children at risk – this is the category of children, which due to certain circumstances of his life more than other categories susceptible to negative external influences from society and its criminal elements that caused minor maladjustment .
Classification A. T. Shulga involves the following categories of children:
1) children with developmental problems that do not have sharply defined clinical and pathological characteristics;
2) children left without parental care due to various circumstances;
3) children from disadvantaged, socially isolated families;
4) children from families in need of socio-economic and socio-psychological assistance and support;
5) children with manifestations of social, psychological maladjustment.
In this classification aspect of our work is the third category of children, i.e., children from socially disadvantaged families. This category includes children whose parents are not engaged in their education and development. As a result, these adolescents are characterized by poor health, developmental disabilities, low academic performance in school, the various manifestations of deviant (deviant) behavior, etc.
The word risk in this case means the ability, the greater the likelihood of negative, undesirable influences lifestyle of parents, family structure on the development and formation of personality of a teenager. Actually talking about the two sides of risk. On the one hand, it’s a risk to society, which is created by the children in this category. The concept of “risk” appeared in the Soviet period it was in the context of priority of public interests. This concept allowed us to identify the categories of families whose behaviour could pose a danger to others and society as a whole because it was contrary to generally accepted norms and rules. In recent times, this category of children is considered by specialists primarily from the point of view of risk to which they are constantly exposed to: the risk of loss of life, health, normal conditions for the full development, etc.
Different scholars distinguish different groups of factors that include children and adolescents in this category. So, according to E. I. Kazakova, it is possible to identify three main groups of risk factors that create probabilistic risk child: psychological, social and pedagogical (as a special kind of social). Close to the V. E. approach the Operations which identifies the following groups of risk factors for children, we study categories:
1. biomedical (group health, hereditary causes, traits, disorders in mental and physical development, conditions of birth child, maternal disease and its way of life, injury, fetal development, etc.);
2. socio-economic (large and incomplete families, parents of minors, unemployed families, families that lead an immoral life; the inability to live in society: the escape, vagrancy, idleness, theft, fraud, fighting, killing, suicide attempts, aggressive behavior, alcohol, drugs etc.);
3. psychological alienation from the social environment, the failure itself, neurotic reactions, disorders of communicating with others, emotional instability, the failure in operation, a failure in social adaptation difficulties of communication, interaction with peers and adults, etc.);
4. pedagogical (non-compliance with the content of the programs of educational institutions and learning environments of their children’s psycho-physiological characteristics, the rate of mental development of children and the pace of learning, the predominance of negative evaluations, uncertainty in activity, lack of interest in teaching, the closeness to the positive experience, the disparity between the image of the pupil, etc.) .
Public practice educators and psychologists also allows you to isolate other factors. Chief among them are the following life circumstances of these children:
1. drinking one or both parents, their antisocial behavior (loitering, begging, stealing, prostitution, etc.);
2. the device in the apartment of the parents of dens of crime and anti-social elements; sexual abuse by parents of their own children, trafficking in persons;
3. the murder of a parent in the eyes of children drinking buddies, or the other parent; serving one of the parents of the term of imprisonment;
4. treatment of one of their parents from alcoholism, mental illness, abuse with children (beatings, beatings with grievous injuries, hunger, etc.);
5. leaving young children alone without food and water;
6. the lack of a roof over his head, wandering with their parents without any means of livelihood and lack of permanent residence; escape from home, conflicts with peers, etc.
All of the above factors are largely objective characteristics of adolescents from socially disadvantaged families.